I had no idea what lymphedema was before I got involved with the fitting of compression garments. I don’t think I had ever heard the word before. Unfortunately, this is not uncommon in our society. When asked about my profession, I often have to go into a long explanation of what lymphedema is and how it affects the body because so few people are aware of it or understand how it affects people.
Countless times I have helped people with swollen limbs that have never heard of lymphedema or understood why their limb was so large. Often misdiagnosed, or their condition is dismissed as just extra weight. Awareness is critical to deal with this chronic disease that seems to be becoming more prevalent in our society.
WHAT IS LYMPHEDEMA?
Lymphedema is a chronic lymphatic disease that causes a build-up of lymph fluid in the fatty tissues just under your skin. It can result in swelling and discomfort in one or more body parts. This usually occurs in the arms or legs but can also happen in the face, neck, trunk, abdomen, or genitals. Sometimes this swelling occurs quickly, but it can also take several weeks or months to develop.
HOW DOES IT START?
There are two different kinds of lymphedema. Primary lymphedema is due to a developmental defect in the lymph system. Primary lymphedema can either be congenital or hereditary. An injury or insult to the lymphatic system causes secondary lymphedema. This can occur in many ways, including surgery, infections, obesity, chronic venous insufficiency, malignant tumors, or Filariasis.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS & SYMPTOMS?
It’s essential to know the signs and symptoms of lymphedema and to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Even before you experience swelling, you may feel a heaviness in your limb. Skin can feel tight or hard, changing in texture. Aching, tingling, numbness, or other discomfort in the area may also be an early sign of lymphedema. Less flexibility in nearby joints such as your hand, wrist, shoulder, or ankle may also indicate a problem. Clothing and jewelry may fit more snugly and be challenging to get on and off. Again, it is essential to seek medical attention when you experience these symptoms. Lymphedema may or may not be the cause. However, lymphedema is a chronic and progressive disease. The sooner it is diagnosed and treated, the easier it is to manage.
WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF LYMPHEDEMA
There are four stages of lymphedema to describe the severity of the disease. Starting with stage zero, where there is no swelling. However, there will be a feeling of heaviness or fullness in the limb. The skin may also feel tight. In stage one, there will be swelling in the affected area. The affected area can feel stiff, and you may notice an increase in the size of the limb. Elevating the limb at this stage will reduce it. Stage two will see more advanced swelling, and elevating the affected limb will not reduce the swelling.
In the final stage, stage three, you will experience much more swelling than in stage two. Swelling can be so severe that the limb is difficult to lift or move. Skin becomes very dry and thick. Swelling can cause fluid to leak from the skin or blisters to form. In stages two and three, the affected area also has more chance of infections.
Early stages of lymphedema, zero and one, are often reversible. However, the later stages, two and three, may not respond as well to treatment. Again, this is why seeking out medical attention when you first notice any signs or symptoms is so important.
The measurement and comparison of limbs most often diagnose lymphedema. Usually, if your problem limb is 2cm larger than your other limb, you have lymphedema. Lymphoscintigraphy is a test that may also be used. It is a test that uses radioactive material to see lymph vessels and determine if there is a blockage. Computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to see if there are blocked vessels in the swollen area.
TREATING THIS CHRONIC CONDITION
There is no cure at this time! However, it can be managed if diagnosed and treated in the early stages. I highly recommend seeking out a lymphedema specialist. This may be a doctor, but it could just as likely be a certified lymphedema therapist. They will assist you in designing a treatment plan that will work best for your condition and lifestyle. This treatment may include massage therapy called (MLD) manual lymphatic drainage. Exercise, compression garments, pneumatic pumps, diet, and in some cases surgery may also be recommended for your treatment and management of lymphedema.
Managing your lymphedema is easiest if diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of this condition and seek medical attention when necessary. Learning as much as possible about this condition is best for you are your best advocate. Two organizations I support and subscribe to are the National Lymphedema Network and LE&RN lymphatic education and research network.
Disclaimer – This blog is for general information purposes only. Furthermore, the information contained in this blog is not a substitute for medical advice – always consult a licensed healthcare professional for advice on your specific condition. Any reliance you place on this information is at your own risk.